Liable buyers are required to pay ABSD on top of the existing Buyer’s Stamp Duty (BSD). ABSD and BSD are computed on the purchase price as stated in the dutiable document or the market value of the property (whichever is the higher amount).
All buyers / transferees (i.e. individuals, entities including housing developers) are required to complete the ABSD Declaration Form (PDF, 245KB) to be witnessed by their lawyers (if applicable). The completed form need not be submitted to IRAS but it should be retained for at least 5 years from the date of purchase / acquisition of the property as IRAS may request for it for audit purposes.
Determining ABSD liability
The ABSD liability will depend on the profile of the buyer as at the date of purchase or acquisition of the residential property:
A. Whether the buyer is an individual or an entity
B. The profile of the buyer
C. The count of residential properties owned by the buyer (including residential property beneficially owned and held in trust) and D. Whether the residential property is to be held in a living trust
Date of Purchase or Acquisition refers to the earliest of
- Date of execution of the Acceptance to the Option to Purchase or
- Date of Sale & Purchase Agreement or
- Date of instrument which places the residential property on trust or
- Date of transfer to a beneficiary where the residential property was originally held on trust for non-identifiable beneficial owner(s) or
- Date of Transfer where (1), (2), (3) and (4) are not available nor applicable.
Residential Properties held on Trust - ABSD (Trust)
Any conveyance, assignment or transfer on sale of residential property to a trustee to hold on trust and any instrument chargeable in like manner will be subject to the ABSD (Trust) rate of 65%.
For the purposes of stamp duty, the date of document of the purchase instrument will be taken as the date on which the document is signed (i.e. the Acceptance to Option to Purchase/Sale and Purchase Agreement should be signed on the date it is to be executed and delivered to the Vendor). The trust instrument should also be signed, sealed and delivered on the day it is to be executed.
Remission of ABSD (Trust) may be provided via a refund where the conveyance, assignment or transfer on sale of residential property to a person i.e. trustee, is held on trust for one or more identifiable individual beneficiaries only (whether or not the conveyance, transfer or assignment is also made to another person).
The amount remitted will be based on the difference between the ABSD (Trust) rate of 65% and ABSD rate corresponding to the profile of the beneficial owner with the highest applicable ABSD rate. ABSD (Trust) of 65% is to be paid upfront, and an application for the refund must be made to IRAS within six months after the date of execution of the instrument.
Please refer to the page on Remission of ABSD (Trust)
for more details on the remission conditions.
Residential properties transferred into trusts for housing developers are subject to ABSD rate of 40% (5% non-remittable; plus 35% remitted upfront subject to conditions).
A. Whether the Buyer is an Individual or an Entity
- An unincorporated association
- A trustee for a collective investment scheme when acting in that capacity
- A trustee-manager for a business trust when acting in that capacity
- The partners of the partnership whether or not any of them is an individual, where the property conveyed, transferred or assigned is to be held as partnership property
B. The Profile of the Buyer
The applicable ABSD rate is based on the profile of the buyer on the date of purchase. You must have been granted the Singapore Citizenship status or Singapore Permanent Resident status by the Immigration and Checkpoint Authority (ICA) as at the date of property purchase in order to enjoy lower ABSD liability. The date of issue reflected in the IC collection slip would be taken as when the status was granted.
For purchases made jointly by two or more buyers of different profiles, the highest applicable ABSD rate will apply on the entire value of the property purchased.
C. The Count of Residential Properties Owned by the Buyer
1. Count from Date of Contract or Agreement
If a Contract or an Agreement to purchase the property has been signed, that property is to be included in the count of properties owned by a buyer (A) from the date of acceptance of the agreement, even if it has not been legally transferred to him as he already has an equitable interest in the property.
This also includes the purchase of an uncompleted unit from the developer if the Sale & Purchase Agreement has been signed.
Similarly, the property is to be excluded from the count of properties owned by a buyer (A) if there is already a Contract or an Agreement to sell his property and the new buyer (B) has executed his option to buy the property.
2. Full Count for Partial Ownership and Joint Ownership
3. Property held on Trust
4. Purchase of Multiple Properties in One Transaction
Although many properties may be bought under a single contract, each property will be counted as a separate property. Where applicable, the buyer may choose any one of the multiple properties to be subject to ABSD. For example, if a Singapore Citizen who does not own any residential property decides to purchase two residential properties in one contract, he may choose any one of the units to be subject to ABSD.
If multiple properties are jointly purchased by buyers of different profiles, each property will be counted as a separate property and the profile with the highest ABSD rate will apply on each property as if the buyers are acquiring the properties jointly under separate instruments. For example, a Singapore Citizen who owns one residential property decides to purchase three residential properties ("Property A, B and C") together with a Singapore Permanent Resident who does not own any residential property, in a single contract. The ABSD rates applicable on the purchase of Property A, B and C are 20%^, 30%* and 35%# respectively.
^20% because Property A is the Singapore Citizen's second residential property, whose profile is higher than his co-purchaser's (Singapore Permanent Resident's first residential property).
*30% because Property B is the Singapore Citizen's third residential property and the Singapore Permanent Resident's second residential property. Both profiles attract a 30% ABSD rate.
#35% because Property C is the Singapore Permanent Resident's third residential property, whose profile is higher than his co-purchaser's (Singapore Citizen's third and subsequent property).
5. Properties acquired to be included in the property count
6. HDB Shop with Living Quarters and Shophouse
7. Exclusion of Properties Gazetted for Compulsory Acquisition
8. Exclusion of Properties Located Outside Singapore
Rates and Computation
ABSD Rates on the higher of the purchase price or market value
|Profile of Buyer||ABSD Rates from 16 Dec 2021 to 26 Apr 2023||ABSD Rates on or after 27 Apr 2023|
|Singapore Citizens (SC) buying first residential property1||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|SC buying second residential property1||17%||20%|
|SC buying third and subsequent residential property1||25%||30%|
|Singapore Permanent Residents (SPR) buying first residential property1||5%||5%|
|SPR buying second residential property1||25%||30%|
|SPR buying third and subsequent residential property1||30%||35%|
|Foreigners (FR) buying any residential property1||30%||60%|
|Entities2buying any residential property1|
|Housing Developers3 buying any residential property1|
(Plus Additional 5% (non-remittable)5)
(Plus Additional 5% (non-remittable)5)
From 9 May 2022 onwards, any transfer of residential property into a living trust will be subject to an ABSD rate that is the same as entities.
|Profile of Buyer||ABSD Rates from 9 May 2022 to 26 Apr 2023||ABSD Rates on or after 27 Apr 2023|
|Trustee6 buying any residential property1||35%||65%|
ABSD is to be rounded down to the nearest dollar, subject to a minimum duty of $1.
1 Whether owned wholly, partially or jointly with others.
2 An Entity means a person who is not an individual. It includes the following:
- An unincorporated association,
- A trustee for a collective investment scheme when acting in that capacity,
- A trustee-manager for a business trust when acting in that capacity
- The partners of the partnership whether or not any of them is an individual, where the property conveyed, transferred or assigned is to be held as partnership property.
3 Housing Developers refer to entities in the business of housing development (i.e. construction and sale of housing units) with respect to the subject property acquired. These include trustees for housing developers, which will continue to be subject to the same ABSD rate as Housing Developers.
4 As entities, Housing Developers will also be subject to the ABSD rate for entities as follows:
- For the period on or after 16 Dec 2021, Housing Developers will be subject to the ABSD rate of 35%.
Housing Developers may apply for remission of 35% ABSD, subject to conditions.
5 This 5% ABSD for Housing Developers is in addition to the 35% (on or after 16 Dec 2021) ABSD. This 5% will not be remitted, and is to be paid upfront upon purchase of residential property.
6 Trustee refers to a trustee of any trust when acting in that capacity, but excludes the following:
- Trustee for a collective investment scheme when acting in that capacity;
- Trustee-manager for a business trust when acting in that capacity; and
- Trustee for a housing developer when acting in that capacity.
Example: A Foreigner purchases a unit at a market value of $2 million on 1 Aug 2023 and the ABSD rate of 60% applies.
|Computation of ABSD|
|60% of $2,000,000||= $1,200,000|
ABSD Rates prior to 16 Dec 2021
|Profile of Buyer|
ABSD Rates from 12 Jan 2013 to 5 Jul 2018
|ABSD Rates from 6 Jul 2018 to 15 Dec 2021|
|Singapore Citizens (SC) buying first residential property||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|SC buying second residential property||7%||12%|
|SC buying third and subsequent residential property||10%||15%|
|Singapore Permanent Residents (SPR) buying first residential property||5%||5%|
|SPR buying second residential property||10%||15%|
|SPR buying third and subsequent residential property||10%||15%|
|Foreigners (FR) buying any residential property||15%||20%|
|Entities buying any residential property||15%|
|Housing Developers buying any residential property||15%|
(Plus Additional 5% (non-remittable))
All entities will be subject to the new ABSD rate of 65%. Housing Developers are subject to the ABSD rate of 35% and an additional non-remittable ABSD rate of 5% upon stamping, i.e. aggregate ABSD rate of 40%. Such developers may apply for remission on the ABSD rate of 35% under the ABSD remission for development of 4 or less units of housing accommodation or ABSD remission for development of 5 or more units of housing accommodation.
Entities who are acquiring residential properties with no intention to carry out housing development (i.e. construction and sale of housing units) with respect to the subject property acquired should pay the ABSD rate of 65%.
It is important for the purchasing entity to decide whether it will undertake housing development of the subject property at the point of purchase, in order to ascertain the applicable ABSD treatment. Any subsequent change of intention will not be considered for stamp duty purposes. For example, entities who have paid the ABSD rate of 65% will not qualify for the ABSD Housing Developers Remission, even if they fulfil the remission conditions subsequently.
ABSD Treatment for Trusts
Why is there a remission of ABSD (Trust)?
With ABSD (Trust), will the residential property transferred into the trust be added to the property count of the beneficial owner?
The residential property transferred into the trust will be added to property count of any identifiable beneficial owner of that property, regardless of whether there is a remission of ABSD (Trust).
How do I stamp documents liable to ABSD (Trust)?
For purchase by Singapore Citizens (SC)
I am an SC currently owning only one private apartment. I am considering selling it and buying a terrace house. Do I have to pay ABSD when I buy the terrace house?
If you have contracted to sell your only apartment before you execute the Acceptance to the Option to Purchase for the terrace house, you do not need to pay ABSD.
But if you have not contracted to sell your apartment, your purchase of the terrace house will be your second property on which you need to pay ABSD at 20%.
My wife and I are SCs and we jointly own an apartment. We intend to jointly purchase a terrace house that is under construction. Do we need to pay ABSD?
I am an SC and I co-own a house with my mother. My husband who is also an SC does not own any residential property. If we buy our first matrimonial home jointly, do we need to pay ABSD?
I am a widow and I jointly own a terrace house with my son. We are both SC. We intend to downgrade to a condominium unit. Can we apply for ABSD refund if we dispose of the terrace house within 6 months from the purchase of the condominium unit?
For purchase by SC and others (Singapore Permanent Residents (SPR) and Foreigners (FR))
I am an SC married to a SPR. We jointly own a private apartment. If we buy another house jointly, what is the ABSD payable by us?
I am an SC married to a SPR. We jointly own a 3-room HDB flat. If we upgrade to a 5-room flat, do we need to pay ABSD?
I am an SC married to a SPR. We jointly own a 5-room HDB flat. If we upgrade to a private flat, do we need to pay ABSD?
I am an SC married to an SPR. Both of us do not own any property in Singapore. If we jointly purchase our first matrimonial home, do we need to pay ABSD?
I am an SC and my wife is a FR. We jointly own one apartment which is our first matrimonial home and no other property. Would we be eligible for the ABSD remission if we upgrade to a terrace house and sell the apartment within 6 months of our purchase of the terrace house?
For purchase by non-SC
I am an SPR who recently became a Singapore citizen. Do I need to pay ABSD?
ABSD liability is determined based on the buyer’s profile at the point of purchasing a property and does not change notwithstanding subsequent changes to the buyer’s profile.
The point of purchase refers to the date you signed your:
a) Date of Acceptance of the Option to Purchase* or
b) Date of Sale and Purchase Agreement or
c) Date of Agreement for Lease (for new HDB flat) or
d) Date of Transfer where the above a), b) and c) are not applicable.
*Excludes an Option to Purchase that is subject to the execution/ signing of the Sale and Purchase Agreement
If you received the in-principle approval for your application for SC/ SPR by the Immigration & Checkpoints Authority (ICA) before purchasing the property, please submit an e-appeal through the e-Stamping portal. Notwithstanding your appeal request, you will need to pay the ABSD within 14 days of purchasing the property. Your appeal will be assessed on a case-by-case basis and if successful, the ABSD will be refunded to you after all the remission conditions have been met.
If you only received ICA’s in-principle approval after purchasing the property, your appeal will not be successful.
I am an SPR buying my first HDB resale flat. Do I need to pay ABSD?
I am an SPR owning one private apartment. If I downgrade to a HDB resale flat, do I need to pay ABSD on the HDB flat?
I am an SPR owning one private apartment. If I purchase a second private apartment, what is the ABSD payable by me?
I am an SPR owning two private apartments. If I purchase a third or subsequent private apartment, what is the ABSD payable by me?
I am an SPR. I am also a citizen of United States of America. There is a Free Trade Agreement signed between USA and Singapore. Which ABSD rate will apply to me when I buy my first residential property in Singapore?
If I am in the process of obtaining my SC or SPR at the time of purchase, can I later apply for a remission to enjoy lower ABSD rates based on my new status?
I am buying a HDB shop with living quarters. Is ABSD payable?
I am buying a strata shop unit. Is ABSD payable?
I am buying a mixed-use development on land zoned ‘Residential’. Is ABSD payable?
I am buying a semi-detached house which has been approved as a child care centre for three years. Is ABSD payable?
I am an SC owning one house in Malaysia but none in Singapore. Is ABSD payable when I buy my first residential property in Singapore?
I am an SC. My only house has been gazetted to be compulsorily acquired by the Government. If I buy another residential property now, do I need to pay ABSD?
Who should pay ABSD?
Where the terms of the document do not state who is liable to pay stamp duty, the party to pay stamp duty will follow that as specified in the Third Schedule of the Stamp Duties Act. For ABSD, this is generally the purchaser (buyer) or transferee. Please refer to Who Should Pay Stamp Duty for more details.
When must BSD and ABSD be paid?
What if I do not have enough funds to pay ABSD? Can ABSD be deferred or paid by instalments?
Can I pay ABSD using my Central Provident Fund (CPF) money?
Using CPF funds to pay stamp duty is subject to the terms and conditions under the Private Properties and Public Housing Schemes. You may wish to check with CPF Board for more details.
If a seller were to backdate the date of offer of his Option upon the request of the buyer to avoid paying ABSD at a higher rate, is this an offence?
If I enter into an arrangement in order to reduce or avoid the Additional Buyer’s Stamp Duty that I have to pay, is this an offence?
In cases of tax avoidance, the Commissioner of Stamp Duties will disregard or vary any tax avoidance arrangement, claw back the rightful amount of stamp duty and impose a 50% surcharge on the additional duty payable. Further penalties of up to 4 times the outstanding amount may be imposed if the stamp duty and surcharge are not paid by the deadline.